The University of Rochester in New York University, a team of experienced researchers tested the hypothesis that adverse effects of urban air occurring ultrafine particles is health.
The research focused on the smallest, specifically due to the atmosphere present in the ultrafine particles on health, not the larger coarse particles.


The research team took part in atmospheric scientists and aerosol physicists, epidemiologists, lung, cardiovascular and specialist physicians, pharmacists, biologists.
Epidemiological, colloquially infectious diseases ranging from dealing studies have shown a consistent correlation between the ultra-fine particulate matter and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. 

The researchers observed increased morbidity (illness observed frequency) and mortality (death rate compared to the number of cases of the disease) in people's respiratory and circulatory diseases are concerned.

in animals (rats) studies have shown that ultrafine particles contaminated atmosphere is much greater inflammatory disease of the lungs than larger particles contaminated területeken.

A study found that the ultrafine particles rich areas increased incidence of asthmatic disease. These results are the basis for ultra-fine particle hypothesis.

The purpose of the proposed tests was to strictly control the ultrafine particle hypothesis comparing ultrafine (~ 10-50 nm) in size, and the larger (~ 100-500 nm) particles of each stage of research.

The Rochester research team, during the more than five-year study period:

- Watching both belonging to the group size, ultrafine (~ 10-50 nm) in size, and the concentration of large (~ 100-500 nm) particles in urban and rural market, eastern and western US cities;
- Reviewed the ambient concentrations of particulate number / mass susceptible age group of respiratory and cardiovascular effects
- He compared the relationship of the respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and the presence of large numbers of ultrafine particles, age, illness, co-contaminants, depending on the exercise;

- Animal experiments modeled on body deposition of particles of ultra-fine;
- They analyzed the cellular and molecular levels of ultrafine particles deposited in the body and the relationship between oxidative stress;

Some of the studies made in Germany, which examined the effect on cardiovascular effects of ultrafine particles. The aim of the study was to measure ultrafine particles, highly saturated, and open plan living areas, a cleaner stable coronary artery, and COPD (chronic lung disease obtruktív international abbreviation) status in patients. Studied the autonomic cardiac function, measured by the inflammatory condition is related to air composition.

The study showed under controlled laboratory tests to cause ultrafine particles, (not the larger particles), relevant concentrations appear in the lung inflammatory and cardiovascular secondary infections in the body. Field tests have shown that the ultrafine particles are better correlated with health effects than larger particles.

Researchers surveyed believes that the ultra-fine particles in the presence of a large number of serious consequences for public health. It was proposed to regulators in the PM introduction of standards to be achieved by reducing the tested diseases significant improvement.

According to them, not only to be re-evaluated in the new PM2.5 standard, but an additional standard must also create a defined number of particles into account. In addition, it may be necessary to ultrafine particles leaky appliances - such as internal combustion engines, residential heating oil - further regulation.

 

Photo: diagnosiscopd.com, autoguide.com

Literature used:

https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractdetail/abstract/1098